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Citations & Plagiarism

Use this guide to find help and information on citation styles and avoiding plagiarism.

Chicago Manual of Style, Online

The Chicago Manual of Style is used in some social science publications and most historical journals. It remains the basis for the Style Guide of the American Anthropological Association and the Style Sheet for the Organization of American Historians. Many small publishers throughout the world adopt it as their style. (via The Chicago Manual of Style)

Chicago Style by format

The Chicago Manual of Style presents two basic documentation systems: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date. Choosing between the two often depends on subject matter and the nature of sources cited, as each system is favored by different groups of scholars.

The notes and bibliography style is preferred by many in the humanities, including those in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in notes and, often, a bibliography. 

The author-date system has long been used by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.

 

From Chicago Manual of Style: Quick Citation Guide

EXAMPLES

One author:
Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

 

Two + authors:
Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf, 2007.

For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the bibliography; in the note, list only the first author, followed by et al. (“and others”):


Translator:
Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.

Book chapter:

Kelly, John D. “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War.” In Anthropology

and Global Counterinsurgency, edited by John D. Kelly, Beatrice Jauregui, Sean T. Mitchell, and Jeremy

Walton, 67–83. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.

Please note that the following examples are taken from the Chicago Manual of Style in the Documentation 1 format for the notes and bibliography.  Please refer directly to the Manual if you have more questions.

 

14.175 Journals

 

Menjivar, Cecilia.  "Linimal Legality: Salvadoran and Guatemalan Immigrants' Lives in the United States."  American Journal of Sociology 111, no. 4 (2006): 999-1037.  doi:10.1086/499509.

 

Loften, Peter.  "Reverberations between Wordplay and Swordplay in Hamlet."  Aeolian Studies 2 (1989):12-29.

 

Abrams, Marshall.  "How Do Natural Selection and Random Drift Interact?"  Philosophy of Science 74 (December 2007): 666-79.  doi:10.1086/525612.

 

The bibliography should be arranged alphabetically and should contain every item cited in the document.  Feel free to Ask A Librarian for more help!

The Chicago Manual of Style requires that the database name be included in the reference list.  Below are some general examples taken from the manual.

 

14.271, 14.272  Databases

 

Howard, David H.  "Hospital Quality and Selective Contracting: Evidence from Kidny Transplantation."  Forum for Health Economics and Policy 11, no. 2 (2008).  PubMed Central (PMC2600561).

 

GenBack (for RP11-322N14 BAC [accession number AC017046]; accessed October 6, 2009).  http;//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Genbank/.

 

NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (object name IRAS f00400+4059; accessed October 6, 2009).  http://nedwww.ipac.caltech.edu/.

 

Please refer to the manual, the links included in this guide or Ask A Librarian if you have any questions.

For books that come in many different formats, the Chicago Manual requires that you cite the format you consulted.  For more detailed information, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style Online.  The following example is taken from the Chicago Manual of Style as a guide for citing e-books on e-reader devices.

 

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kindle edition.

For more specific information on the Chicago style, please refer to chapters 14-15 of the Chicago Manual of Style.

Other Guides

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