The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the style manual of choice for writers, editors, students, educators, and professionals in psychology, sociology, business, economics, nursing, social work, and justice administration, and other disciplines. In addition to providing clear guidance on grammar, the mechanics of writing, and APA style, the Publication Manual offers an authoritative and easy-to-use reference and citation system and comprehensive coverage of the treatment of numbers, metrication, statistical and mathematical data, tables, and figures for use in writing, reports, or presentations.
APA (American Psychological Association) style is generally used in the social sciences. As the publishing standard, APA style also provides guidelines for paper formatting.
Books and monographs, including reference books, dictionaries and other items, are generally cited using the following format:
Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www.websiteadress
Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. doi: xx.xxxxxxxx
Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
Please note that APA uses sentence capitalization rules for the title of the item, meaning that generally only the first word, proper nouns, and the first word following a colon are capitalized. For more specific examples, please refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
Journals are items that are published on a regular basis and are also referred to as 'periodicals'. There is a general basic format for citing journal articles in APA style. Please remember that the reference list must be double-spaced with a hanging indent. Examples are taken from Publication manual of the American Psychological Association unless otherwise noted.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance. (2015, May). An environmental management system review of the National Park Service: Based on the code of environmental management principles. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/compliance/resources/publications/incentives/ems/emsnps.pdf
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000)
For items retrieved online, please include the website. The examples below are general in nature. Please always double-check your citations using the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
The FIU Libraries currently has Kindles available for check, with a variety of other e-readers to be available in the future. In order to cite e-books on the devices, follow the examples below, taken from the APA Style Blog.
In both cases, the edition of the e-book is related. The DOI should be included, if available. For citing particular passages, either paraphrase with correct in-text citations or refer to Section 6.05 of the APA Manual and follow the rules for quotations from online sources.
One of the author’s main points is that “people don’t rise from nothing” (Gladwell, 2008, Chapter 1, Section 2, para. 5).
Here are a few notes on in-text citations from the Purdue OWL:
All quotes will have reference to:
According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).
Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?
She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.
According to Smith (1997), ... (Mind over Matter section, para. 6).
Purdue OWL: APA Formatting and Style Guide. (n.d.). Retrieved 5 October 2015,
Block Quotes (over 40 words)
Jones's (1998) study found the following, students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)
Summary, Paraphrase, & In Your Own Words
If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article, or other work,
According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.
APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).
Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.).