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Citations & Plagiarism

Use this guide to find help and information on citation styles and avoiding plagiarism.

INTRODUCTION

AMA (American Medical Association) style is generally used in the health sciences and medicine. See the 10th edition of the publication manual for more information.

AMA by format

"A complete reference to a print book includes the following: 1. Authors' surnames and first and middle initials 2. Chapter title (when cited) 3. Surname and first and middle initials of book authors or editors (or translator, if any) 4. Title of book and subtitle, if any 5. Volume number and volume title, when there is more than 1 volume 6. Edition number (do not indicate first edition) 7. Place of publication (see , Abbreviations, Cities, States, Counties, Territories, Possessions; Provinces; Countries) 8. Name of publisher 9. Year of copyright 10. Page numbers, when specific pages are cited."

"The basic format for reference to an Internet-based book is as follows. Note: If the reference is to the entire book, the information about chapter title and inclusive pages is not included.Author(s). Chapter title. In: Editor(s). Book Title. [Edition number, if it is the second edition or above; mention of first edition is not necessary] ed. City, State (or country) of publisher: Publisher’s name; copyright year:inclusive pages. URL: [provide URL and verify that the link still works as close as possible to the time of publication]. Accessed [date]."

Examples:

Cartwright RD. The Twenty-Four Hour Mind: The Role of Sleep and Dreaming in Our Emotional Lives. New York: Oxford University Press; 2010.

Hendrickx S. The Adolescent and Adult Neuro-Diversity Handbook: Asperger's Syndrome, ADHD, Dyslexia, Dyspraxia and Related Conditions. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers; 2010.

Hoffman R, Gerber M. The Mediterranean Diet: Health and Science. Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.

"A complete print journal reference includes the following: ▪ Authors' surnames and initials ▪ Title of article and subtitle, if any ▪ Abbreviated name of journal ▪ Year ▪ Volume number ▪ Issue number ▪ Part or supplement number, when pertinent ▪ Inclusive page numbers."

"The basic format for reference to an article in an online journal is as follows: Author(s). Title. Journal Name [using National Library of Medicine abbreviations see , Abbreviations, Names of Journals]. Year;vol(issue No.):inclusive pages. URL [provide the URL in this field; no need to use “URL:” preceding it]. Published [date]. Updated [date]. Accessed [date]."

Examples:

Donelan K, Buerhaus P, DesRoches C, Dittus R, Dutwin D. Public perceptions of nursing careers: The influence of the media and nursing shortages. Nurs Econ. 2008;26(3):143-50, 165.

Lin L, Cherng R, Chen Y, Chen Y, Yang H. Effects of television exposure on developmental skills among young children. Infant Behav Dev. 2015;38:20-26.

Sydenham E, Dangour AD, Lim W. Omega 3 fatty acid for the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;6:CD005379.

"In citing data from a website, include the following elements, if available, in the order shown: Author(s), if given (often, no authors are given). Title of the specific item cited (if none is given, use the name of the organization responsible for the site). Name of the website. URL [provide URL and verify that the link still works as close as possible to publication]. Published [date]. Updated [date]. Accessed [date]."

Examples:

Drinking water. MedlinePlus. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/drinkingwater.html. Updated February 26, 2015. Accessed March 16, 2015.

Mayo Clinic Staff. Headache. The Mayo Clinic. http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/headache/basics/definition/sym-20050800. Published June 4, 2013. Accessed March 16, 2015.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Division of Applied Research and Technology. Buy quiet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/buyquiet/default.html. Updated December 5, 2014. Accessed March 16, 2015.

"Titles of theses and dissertations are given in italics. References to theses should include the location of the university (or other institution), its name, and year of completion of the thesis. If the thesis has been published, it should be treated as any other book reference."

Examples:

Custer SLA. Using Music Therapy in a Clinical Setting to Lower the Levels of Anxiety and Stress [dissertation]. Kingsville: Texas A&M University; 1996.

Fenster SD. Cloning and Characterization of Piccolo, a Novel Component of the Presynaptic Cytoskeletal Matrix [dissertation]. Birmingham: University of Alabama; 2000.

Whittle CH. On Learning Science and Pseudoscience from Prime-Time Television Programming [dissertation]. Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico; 2003.

See the full AMA Manual of Style (box on top) or other AMA guides (box on the left) for information on how to cite other types of sources in AMA style.

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